Skip to main content Skip to search

Archives for Health

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis – Symptoms, Complications, Treatment and Recommended Diet

Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune condition that can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in joints. Rheumatoid arthritis can develop at any age, but most commonly starts between the ages of 40 and 60. 

The disease commonly affects the hands, knees or ankles, and usually the same joint on both sides of the body. But sometimes, Rheumatoid arthritis causes problems in other parts of the body as well, such as the eyes, heart, and circulatory system or lungs. 

Over time, persistent inflammation can lead to a progressive loss of mobility, pain, and joint deformity.

What are the causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when a person’s immune system mistakes the body’s healthy tissues for foreign invaders. As the immune system responds, inflammation occurs in the target tissue or organ.

In a healthy joint, cartilage lines the end of the bones. The cartilage acts as a cushion and allows the bones within the joint to glide smoothly over one another. The joint is contained within a joint capsule, which is lined by a synovial membrane called synovium. 

Rheumatoid arthritis causes the normally thin synovium to become inflamed and thickened causing pain and swelling. Also, the cartilage and bone end within the joint may become damaged and eroded leading to loss of function and deformity of the joint.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

What are the signs and symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include:

  • Joint pain, tenderness, swelling or stiffness
  • Morning stiffness lasting an hour or more
  • Unsteadiness when walking
  • Loss of function and mobility
  • Joint deformity
  • Fatigue
  • Low-grade fever
  • Weight loss
  • Anemia

Are you at risk of developing Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Factors that increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis include:

  • Family history: Rheumatoid arthritis tends to run in the family.
  • Obesity: Obesity places stress on affected joints and the excessive accumulation of fat cells triggers a pro-inflammatory effect. 
  • Smoking: The risk of developing RA is approximately twice as high for smokers than for non-smokers.
  • Gender: Women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Hormonal factors: Changes or deficiencies in certain hormones may be involved in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

What are the complications of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis can adversely affect other organs as well. The complications may include:

  • Hardened lumps that form under the skin, most often around the elbows, heels, or knuckles
  • Inflammation of the lining of the lungs, causing chest pain, shortness of breath, and rapid, shallow breathing
  • Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, causing chest pain, chest tightness, and fatigue
  • Inflammation of the blood vessels, causing fever,  fatigue, weight loss, and skin problems
  • Inflammation of the white of the eye, causing redness, pain, and in severe cases, vision loss
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome, a type of nerve damage that stems from compression and irritation of a nerve in the wrist causing aching, numbness, and tingling in the fingers, thumb, and part of the hand.
  • A higher risk of developing colds, flu, pneumonia, and other infections.
  • A higher risk of developing Cervical Myelopathy, a common degenerative condition caused by compression on the spinal cord causing clumsiness in hands and gait imbalance. 
  • A higher risk of developing Osteoporosis, a condition that weakens the bones and makes them more prone to fracture.
  • A higher risk of developing Lymphoma, a group of blood cancers that develop in the lymph system.

Why is it important to diagnose Rheumatoid Arthritis early?

It is very important to start treatment as early as possible after symptoms begin. This is because any joint damage done by the disease is permanent. 

Therefore, it is vital to start treatment as early as possible to minimise or even prevent any permanent joint damage.

What are the treatment options of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

There is no cure for Rheumatoid arthritis, but there are treatments that can help to manage it’s signs and symptoms. Treatments may include:

    • Medications
  • Dietary changes
  • Gentle exercises can help strengthen the muscles around the joints and can help fight fatigue. 
  • Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and muscle relaxation can also be used to control pain.
  • Getting enough sleep will help to reduce inflammation and pain as well as fatigue.
  • Ice packs or cold compresses can help to reduce inflammation and pain. Hot treatments such as warm showers and hot compresses may also help to reduce stiffness.

What is a recommended diet in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

The doctor may recommend an anti-inflammatory diet to help with the symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis. This type of diet includes 

  • Foods that have lots of omega-3 fatty acids such as
    • Fatty fish like salmon, tuna
    • Chia seeds
    • Flax seeds
    • Walnuts
  • Antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and selenium. Foods high in antioxidants include:
    • Berries, such as blueberries, cranberries, and strawberries
    • Dark chocolate
    • Spinach
    • Kidney beans
  • Whole grain foods, fresh vegetables, and fresh fruit
  • Foods containing flavonoids can also help to counter inflammation in the body such as
    • Soy products
    • Berries
    • Green tea
    • Broccoli
    • Grapes
  • Avoid trigger foods that cause inflammation such as 
    • Processed carbohydrates such as white flour and white sugar
    • Saturated and trans fats such as fried foods and red meat


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more

Lifestyle tips in Pregnancy – Diet and Exercise

Healthy diet during Pregnancy

Maintaining a healthy diet during pregnancy is very important as the body needs additional nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Poor eating habits and excess weight gain may increase the risk of gestational diabetes and pregnancy or birth complications

A balanced diet should have an appropriate blend of below:

Calcium: Calcium is required to build strong bones and teeth. Calcium also allows the blood to clot normally, nerves to function properly, and the heart to beat normally. Dairy products are the best source of calcium. Other sources of calcium are dark, leafy greens, fortified cereal, bread, fish, fortified orange juices, almonds, and sesame seeds.

Folic Acid: Folic acid can help reduce the risk of neural tube defects, which are birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Foods rich in folic acid include lentils, kidney beans, green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, nuts, and beans. Folic acid is also added as a supplement to certain foods such as fortified bread, cereal, pasta, rice, and flour.

Iron: Iron is an important part of red blood cells, which carry oxygen through the body. Iron helps to build immunity and helps to avoid tiredness, weakness, irritability, and depression. Good sources include whole grain products, dried fruit and beans, and green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin A: Foods rich in Vitamin A are leafy green vegetables, deep yellow or orange vegetables, milk, and liver.

Vitamin D: Vitamin D works with calcium to help develop the baby’s bones and teeth. It is also essential for healthy skin and eyesight. Good sources are milk fortified with vitamin D and fatty fish such as salmon. Exposure to sunlight also converts a chemical in the skin to vitamin D.

Protein: Foods containing protein help the baby grow. Protein-rich foods include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, tofu, cheese, milk, nuts, and seeds. 

Limit foods that are high in sugar, fat, and salt

Limit foods such as butter, oils, salad dressings, cream, chocolate, crisps, biscuits, pastries, ice-cream, cake, puddings, and fizzy drinks. Sugar contains calories without providing any other nutrients and can contribute to weight gain, obesity, and tooth decay.

Having too much saturated fat can increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood, which increases the chance of developing heart disease. 

Limit Caffeine

Caffeine is a substance that occurs naturally in foods such as tea, coffee, and chocolate. Having a lot of caffeine increases the risk of having a miscarriage and a baby with low birth weight.

Avoid foods which may have high levels of Listeria

Listeria is a germ to which pregnant women are more likely to become infected. It sometimes causes miscarriage, stillbirth or infections in the baby after birth. Foods which are most at risk of carrying listeria are:

  • Undercooked meats and eggs
  • Raw shellfish and raw fish
  • Unpasteurized milk

Avoid Alcohol

Avoid all forms of alcohol during pregnancy as it can pass directly to the baby through the umbilical cord. Heavy use of alcohol during pregnancy has been linked with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, a group of conditions that can include physical problems, as well as learning and behavioral difficulties in babies and children.

Exercise during Pregnancy

Benefits of exercise during pregnancy

Regular exercise during pregnancy benefits the body and fetus in the below ways:

  • Reduces back pain
  • Eases constipation
  • May decrease the risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery
  • Promotes healthy weight gain during pregnancy
  • Improves overall general fitness and strengthens the heart and blood vessels

Pregnant women should get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity every week e.g. brisk walking. 

Following exercises are considered to be safest during pregnancy:

  • Walking: Brisk walking gives a total body workout and is easy on the joints and muscles.
  • Swimming: Water workouts use many of the body’s muscles. The water supports the weight and helps in avoiding injury and muscle strain.
  • Stationary bicycling: Cycling on a stationary bike is a better choice than standard cycling as growing belly can affect the balance and make more prone to falls
  • Yoga: Yoga reduces stress, improves flexibility, and encourages stretching and focused breathing. 

Exercises to avoid during pregnancy

Exercises that increase the risk of injury such as the following should be avoided:

  • Contact sports e.g. boxing, footfall, basketball, kickboxing
  • Activities that may result in a fall e.g. surfing, cycling, gymnastics, horseback riding
  • Exercises with repetitive high impact or with lots of twists and turns.
  • Skydiving, Scuba diving

Precautions during exercising

Few precautions that pregnant women should keep in mind during exercise:

  • Drink plenty of water and other fluids.
  • Avoid any strenuous exercise in hot or humid weather
  • Always warm-up before exercising, and cool down afterward.
  • Avoid standing still or lying flat on the back for long periods. 

In which cases exercise during pregnancy is unsafe?

Women with the following conditions or pregnancy complications should not exercise during pregnancy:

  • Certain types of heart and lung diseases
  • Cervical insufficiency or cerclage
  • Being pregnant with twins or triplets (or more)
  • Placenta previa after 26 weeks of pregnancy
  • Preterm labor 
  • Preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
  • Severe anemia

Drinking Alcohol During Pregnancy, Is It Safe? 

There is no known safe amount of alcohol use during pregnancy or while trying to get pregnant. Alcohol in the mother’s blood passes to the baby through the umbilical cord. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and a range of lifelong physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities. These disabilities are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children with FASDs might have the following characteristics and behaviors:

  • Abnormal facial features
  • Small head size
  • Shorter-than-average height
  • Low body weight
  • Poor coordination
  • Hyperactive behavior
  • Difficulty with attention
  • Poor memory
  • Learning disabilities
  • Vision or hearing problems
  • Problems with the heart, kidney, or bones

Effects of Smoking during Pregnancy

Smoking during pregnancy exposes the baby to harmful chemicals and can result in a far higher risk of:

  • miscarriage, stillbirth or ectopic pregnancy
  • premature birth
  • low birth weight
  • damage to the baby’s heart and lungs



ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more
Pregnancy Trimesters

Pregnancy Trimesters – Symptoms, Recommended Tests and Complications

The typical pregnancy has three trimesters and lasts around 40 weeks from the first day of a woman’s last period.

In each trimester, the fetus will meet specific developmental milestones. Infants delivered before the end of week 37 are considered premature and may have problems with their growth and development, as well as difficulties in breathing and digesting.

Pregnancy Trimester

First trimester (1 to 12 Weeks)

The first trimester is the most crucial to the baby’s development. During this period, the baby’s body structure and organ systems develop. Most miscarriages and birth defects also occur during this period.

The women’s body undergoes major changes and these changes often cause a variety of symptoms, including nausea, fatigue, breast tenderness, and frequent urination. 

Second trimester (13 to 27 Weeks)

The second trimester is typically the most comfortable period of time for the majority of pregnant women.

During the second trimester, the women experiences decreased nausea, better sleep patterns, and an increased energy level. However, a whole new set of symptoms, such as back pain, abdominal pain, leg cramps, constipation, and heartburn may appear.

The second trimester is when most women can feel their baby move for the first time, usually by 20 weeks. 

Third trimester (28 to 40 Weeks)

The third trimester is the final stage of pregnancy. Some of the physical symptoms during this period include shortness of breath, hemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, varicose veins, and sleeping problems. Many of these symptoms arise from the increase in the size of the uterus.

Tests associated with Pregnancy

Regular pregnancy tests are important as they help in studying the development of the baby, checking for any kind of potential threat to the baby. Each trimester marks its own specific hormonal and physiological changes. And, hence different types of pregnancy tests are ordered in different trimesters as below:

First Trimester Pregnancy Tests

Blood Tests: A series of blood tests are done:

  • Identify Blood type, Rh factor
  • Check for anemia
  • Immunity to rubella, syphilis, HIV, and other common sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C screening
  • Cervical screening
  • Iron studies
  • Toxoplasmosis and varicella immunity
  • hCG Levels are monitored regularly

Urine Tests: A urine test aids in checking the functionality of the kidneys as well as the liver.

Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing: A non-invasive maternal blood test that can assess the risk of a pregnant woman’s developing baby having certain chromosome disorders early in pregnancy. Currently, the test primarily screens for three disorders in a developing baby resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome (trisomies): Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18), and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13).

Chorionic Villus Sampling: This test is generally recommended to women above the age of 35 years and has a family history of some specific pregnancy-related diseases. CVS has the ability to diagnose a broad range of genetic defects, including Down Syndrome, muscular dysentery, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, and cystic fibrosis.

Second-trimester Pregnancy Tests

Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (MSAFP) and Multiple Market Screening: The MSAFP test measures the amount of alpha-fetoprotein present in the body. It’s a kind of protein made by the fetus for the purpose of supporting the pregnancy. Abnormal levels are an indication of possible threats such as Down Syndrome, neural tube defect, etc.

Ultrasound: Ultrasounds are done throughout the entire period of pregnancy. Generally, the first ultrasound is ordered in the 20th week of pregnancy and helps in verifying the due date of delivery, look for multiple fetuses, investigate complications, and even detect malformations inside the womb.

Glucose Screening: A glucose test is usually done between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. Induced diabetes, if not controlled, can result in overly large babies, a broad range of health problems for women and the baby, and even difficulty in delivery. 

Amniocentesis: This particular test is done between the 15th and the 18th week of pregnancy, especially in the case of women above the age of 35 years, who pose a higher risk of genetic disorders and other related issues. Its analysis aids in the detection of neural tube defects and genetic disorders.

Fetal Doppler Ultrasound: This test makes use of sound waves to produce images of blood flow and determines whether or not the flow of blood to the placenta and fetus is normal.

Fetoscopy: This test aids in viewing the fetus. Fetoscopy can help detect some kind of diseases and defects that other tests may fail to identify.

Third Trimester Pregnancy Tests

Group B Streptococcus Screening: This test is used for the detection of group B strep bacteria. Though about 30% of Group B strep is present in all women, it’s also one of the leading causes of many life-threatening infections in newborns, such as mental retardation, impaired vision, and even hearing issues.

Electronic Fetal Heart Monitoring: This test is done during the course of pregnancy, at the time of labor and once during delivery to monitor the heart rate of the fetus, and ensure everything is absolutely fine.

Non-Stress Test: This test is usually performed on a regular basis in high-risk pregnancy cases, such as when a woman is carrying twins or has diabetes, or has high blood pressure. The test aids in monitoring the baby’s heart rate as it moves in the womb.

Contraction Stress Test: This test is also recommended in high-risk pregnancy cases. During the test, a fetal monitor measures the baby’s heart rate when the womb is contracted either by oxytocin or nipple stimulation.

Complications during Pregnancy

Complications of pregnancy are health problems that occur during pregnancy. The following are some common complications a woman may experience during pregnancy:

  • Anemia: Anemia is having lower than the normal number of healthy red blood cells. Women with pregnancy related anemia may feel tired and weak. This can be helped by taking iron and folic acid supplements.
  • Depression:  Some women experience depression during or after pregnancy.
  • Hypertension: Chronic high blood pressure before and during pregnancy puts a pregnant woman and her baby at risk for problems. It is associated with an increased risk for maternal complications such as preeclampsia, placental abruption, and gestational diabetes. 
  • Gestational diabetes: A condition in which the blood sugar levels become high during pregnancy. Managing diabetes can help women have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies.
  • Obesity and weight gain: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with greater risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, stillbirth and cesarean delivery. Overweight and obese women who lose weight before pregnancy are likely to have healthier pregnancies.
    • Infections like HIV, Viral hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Tuberculosis can complicate pregnancy and may have serious consequences on pregnancy outcomes, and the baby. Screening and treatment for these infections, and vaccinations against viruses, such as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus, can prevent many bad outcomes.
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): A women may experience 
  • Pain or burning when using the bathroom.
  • Fever, tiredness, or shakiness.
  • Frequent urination
  • Pressure in the lower belly.
  • Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy or reddish.
  • Nausea or back pain.


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more

Pregnancy – Early Signs, Symptoms and Pregnancy Test


is one of the most beautiful phases of a woman’s life. Pregnancy occurs when a sperm fertilizes an egg after it’s released from the ovary during ovulation. The fertilized egg then travels down into the uterus, where implantation occurs. A successful implantation results in pregnancy. On average, a full-term pregnancy lasts 40 weeks.


Early signs of pregnancy

Here is the list of various early clues that nature leaves behind to let women know they are expecting:

    • Missed period: A missed period is one of the earliest symptoms of pregnancy.
    • Feeling sick and vomiting: A common early sign of pregnancy also known as morning sickness. Increased hormones during early pregnancy are the main cause.
    • Sensitive Breasts: The level of progesterone (the hormone that stimulates the uterus to prepare for pregnancy) starts increasing when one conceives, and the milk ducts start preparing themselves for breastfeeding. Tender breasts accompanied with tingling and soreness of nipples are one of the early symptoms of pregnancy.
    • Spotting: Some women may experience light bleeding and spotting in early pregnancy. It takes place when developing embryo implants itself onto the lining of the uterus. Implantation usually occurs one to two weeks after fertilization.
    • Bloating: The increased progesterone in the body during pregnancy slows down the process of digestion and causes bloating.
    • Strong Sense of Smell: During pregnancy women often get a strange metallic taste that lingers in their mouth and also becomes sensitive to all forms of taste and smell.
  • Fatigue: It’s common to feel tired during pregnancy, especially during the first 12 weeks due to hormonal changes taking place in the body.
  • Headache: A common early sign of pregnancy and is usually caused by altered hormone levels and increased blood volume. 
  • Back pain: Hormones and stress on the muscles are the biggest causes of back pain in early pregnancy.
    • Hip pain: It is very common during pregnancy and tends to increase in late pregnancy. It can have a variety of causes including pressure on ligaments, sciatica, changes in the posture, a heavier uterus.
    • Acne: Many women experience acne in early pregnancy because of increased androgen hormones. Pregnancy acne is usually temporary and clears up after the baby is born.
  • Constipation: Hormone changes during early pregnancy can slow down the digestive system.
  • Pregnancy induced Hypertension: High blood pressure sometimes develops during pregnancy. A number of factors can increase the risk, including being overweight or obese, smoking, having a family history of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

What is a pregnancy test?

A pregnancy test can tell whether a woman is pregnant by checking for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in urine or blood. hCG is made in a woman’s placenta after a fertilized egg implants in the uterus. It is normally made only during pregnancy.

Blood tests: These tests are performed only at the doctor’s clinic or at a laboratory, but are less common as compared to the urine tests. These tests can detect pregnancy earlier than a home pregnancy test, about 6 to 8 days after ovulation. It takes longer to get the results than with a home pregnancy test. 

There are two types of blood pregnancy tests: 

Qualitative hCG test: This type of evaluation checks to identify the presence of hCG. The test is generally taken to confirm pregnancy as early as 10 days after conception.

Quantitative hCG test: This pregnancy test measures the precise amount of hCG in the blood. It may help track problems during pregnancy and also to rule out an ectopic pregnancy.

Urine tests: This is a qualitative test and identifies the presence of hCG in the urine. The presence of hCG in the urine is considered a positive sign of pregnancy.


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more
Diabetic Food Chart

Diabetic Foot Chart

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is higher than usual. Blood glucose is the main source of energy for the body and comes from the food we eat. Over the long-term high glucose levels are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues.

Since blood sugar levels are directly impacted by the intake of foods, nutrition is an essential part of managing diabetes. A healthy diet may also help manage weight, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and help to live a longer and healthier life.Diabetic Food Chart

What are the differences in the diet of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

The same principles of healthy eating and nutritious choices apply to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and there are no major differences in dietary needs.

Although for diabetics taking external insulin, meal timing and carbohydrate portion control is very important

Portion control is a crucial element of any successful diabetic diet and helps to manage calorie intake and overall balance. The use of measuring cups and food scales may help to get more familiar with serving sizes for different foods. The key is to eat more frequently and in small portions.

Meal timing is very crucial for type 1 diabetics and those taking insulin. It is also important to spread carbohydrate intake throughout the day. Well planned meals may also help to keep blood sugar controlled and body energized throughout the day.

What is a recommended diet plan for diabetes?

Recommended Foods for a diabetic person include:

  • Lean Proteins: Protein is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in maintaining the body’s cells, including muscle mass and is associated with reduced appetite and better weight management. Sources of lean protein include:
      • Chicken
      • Egg Whites
      • Fish and seafood
  • Low-fat dairy: Low-fat dairy is also a source of important nutrients like calcium, vitamin D, and potassium and is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Low-fat dairy choices include: 
      • Fat-free or low-fat milk
      • Plain, non-fat yogurt
      • Low-fat cheese
  • Healthy Fats: Healthy fats may support heart health, assist in weight management, improve blood cholesterol, and help lower blood pressure. The best types of fats for diabetes are unsaturated fats like omega-3, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Sources of healthy fats include:
  • Salmon
  • Egg yolks
  • Olives
  • Flax seeds
  • Chia seeds
  • Pumpkin seeds
  • Sesame seeds
  • Walnuts
  • Almonds
      • Hazelnuts
      • Pistachios
  • Peanuts
      • Avocado
  • Non-starchy vegetables: Non-starchy vegetables contain little carbohydrates and tend to be very low in calories. These include:
      • Spinach 
      • Leafy Greens
      • Carrots
      • Cucumbers 
      • Radishes 
      • Mushrooms
      • Squash
      • Zucchini 
      • Asparagus
      • Onion
      • Eggplant
      • Cabbage
      • Broccoli 
      • Tomatoes 
      • Cauliflower 
      • Bell Peppers
      • Okra 
      • Green Beans 
      • Pumpkin
  • Starchy vegetables: Starchy vegetables can contain more carbohydrates, but still tend to offer meaningful health benefits and nutrition. The best choices of starchy vegetables are:
      • Green Peas
      • Corn 
      • Pumpkin
      • Butternut squash
      • Sweet Potatoes 
  • Fruits: Fruits should be included in a well-managed diabetes diet. These include:
      • Lemon
      • Strawberries
      • Watermelon 
      • Blackberries 
      • Raspberries 
      • Blueberries
      • Kiwi
      • Oranges
      • Apples
      • Apricots
      • Peaches
      • Pears
  • Whole grains, Beans, and Lentils: Whole grain and complex carbohydrates help to get more fiber and nutrition. Here are the best sources of complex carbohydrates:
    • Whole Grain Bread 
    • Lentils
    • Oats
    • Millet
    • Black Beans 
    • Chickpeas 
    • Quinoa
    • Brown rice
    • Whole grain barley
    • Whole grain rye

Which foods should be avoided with diabetes?

A diabetic person should avoid: 

  • Added Sugars: Added sugars are a source of simple carbohydrates that are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and have been linked to weight gain, diabetes, and many other chronic diseases. Common examples of added sugars include: 
    • Sugar
    • Pasta
    • White bread
    • Flour
    • Cookies
    • Pastries
    • White potatoes
    • Corn syrup
    • Brown sugar
  • Refined carbohydrates: Common processed foods that tend to be high in refined carbohydrates include:
      • Soda
      • Candy
      • Cakes
      • Cookies
      • Packaged Baked Goods
      • Ice Cream
      • Dairy-Based Desserts
  • Saturated and Trans fats: Saturated and trans fats have been linked to increased blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease. Common sources are:
      • Full Fat Milk
      • Cheese
      • Cream
      • Meat
      • Butter
      • Other Full Fat Dairy
      • High Fat Processed Foods
      • Deep-fried foods
    • Processed Red Meats: Processed red meat such as bacon, sausage, corned beef has been associated with an increased risk of cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.
  • High Sodium Foods: High sodium intake leads to poor heart health especially in those with type 2 diabetes. To decrease sodium, limit the amount of salt and be mindful of the portion size in below diet:
    • Pizza
    • Tomato Sauce
    • Frozen Meals
    • Processed Meat and Cheese
    • Salty Snacks
    • Pickles
    • Cottage Cheese
    • Bread


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more
Diabetes Complications

Diabetes – Eye, Foot, Heart, Kidney, Pregnancy and Oral Complications

Complications Of Diabetes

People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing a number of serious health problems. Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves, and teeth.

Diabetes Complications

Eye complications

Diabetic Retinopathy

It’s caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).  Initially, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. If untreated, it can cause blindness. Consistently high levels of blood glucose, together with high blood pressure and high cholesterol, are the main causes of retinopathy. 


Cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry or double vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night.


Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, the health of which is vital for good vision. This damage is often caused by abnormally high pressure in the eye. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness for people over the age of 60. In adults, diabetes nearly doubles the risk of glaucoma

Foot complications

Uncontrolled diabetes causes damage to nerves and blood vessels in the foot or surrounding area. These damages can lead to foot infection known as diabetic foot.

Because of the poor blood flow, antibiotics cannot get to the site of the infection easily and hence medicines have either no effect or very little effect.

This can become serious if not treated timely, can even lead to amputation of the foot or leg.

Cardiovascular complications

Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to many serious heart problems, such as ischemic heart disease, when the blood supply to the heart muscle is diminished or blocked.

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with diabetes. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, and other risk factors contribute to increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications.

Kidney complications

Kidney complications are caused by damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys leading to the kidneys becoming less efficient or to fail altogether. Kidney disease is much more common in people with diabetes than in those without diabetes. 

Pregnancy complications

During pregnancy, diabetes can also lead to complications for newborns, such as jaundice or breathing problems. All women with diabetes during pregnancy, type 1, type 2 or gestational should strive for target blood glucose levels throughout to minimize complications. Children who are exposed for a long time to high blood glucose in the womb are at higher risk of developing diabetes in the future.

Oral complications

People with diabetes have an increased risk of inflammation of the gums (periodontitis)  if blood glucose is not properly managed. Periodontitis is a major cause of tooth loss and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more

Diabetes – Types, Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus,

commonly known as diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is higher than usual.  Blood glucose is the main source of energy for the body and comes from the food we eat. 

The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin which helps glucose from food get into body cells to be used for energy. 

With diabetes, the body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it makes. Not being able to produce insulin or use it effectively leads to raised glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycemia).

Over the long-term high glucose levels are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues.

Let us go over various aspects of Diabetes in an easy to understand way


Types of Diabetes

Type 1

It occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are Type 1. Patients with Type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for the rest of their life. 

Type 2

In this type of diabetes, the cells in the body do not react to insulin (this is also known as insulin resistance) or the insulin produced by the pancreas does not match the requirement of the body (insulin production is less). Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age but is most prominent with humans who are 40+ in age and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases. 

It can be controlled with 

  • Healthy lifestyle (exercise and healthy food)
  • Medication
  • In some cases, external insulin may be required

Gestational Diabetes

A type of diabetes that consists of high blood glucose during pregnancy and is associated with complications to both mother and child. Gestational Diabetes usually disappears after pregnancy but women affected and their children are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. It can be controlled with exercise and medications.


It is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis. A healthy lifestyle along with regular check-ups of blood glucose helps to keep a check on prediabetes and prevents it to convert into diabetes.

Causes of diabetes

Different causes are associated with each type of diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is caused usually by an autoimmune reaction where the body’s defense system attacks the cells that produce insulin. As a result, the body produces very little or no insulin. The exact causes of this are not yet known but are linked to a combination of genetic and environmental conditions.

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes stems from a combination of genetics and lifestyle factors such as being overweight and inactive. People with family history also have more chances to develop Type 2 diabetes as compared to people who do not have any family history of Type 2 diabetes. 

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is the result of hormonal changes during pregnancy. The placenta produces hormones that make a pregnant woman’s cells less sensitive to the effects of insulin. This can cause high blood sugar during pregnancy. Women who are overweight when they get pregnant or who gain too much weight during their pregnancy are more prone to get gestational diabetes.

What are the symptoms of Diabetes?

The general symptoms of diabetes include:

  1. Frequent urination
  2. Excessive thirst
  3. Weight loss
  4. Increased Hunger
  5. Extreme fatigue
  6. Blurry vision
  7. Slow healing wounds
  8. Tingling or numbness in the feet or toes

Men with diabetes may have

  • Decreased sex drive
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED)
  • Poor muscle strength.

Women with diabetes may have 

  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Yeast Infections
  • Dry, Itchy skin

How is Diabetes diagnosed?

Doctors use the following blood tests to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes. Women are also routinely tested for gestational diabetes during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy. 

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 

This test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last 2 to 3 months. It’s also called HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin test, and glycohemoglobin.

HbA1c readings can be interpreted as below:

A1c Level Indication
Less than 5.7%  Normal
5.7% to 6.4%  Prediabetes
6.5%  Diabetes

Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG)

This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an 8-12 hour fast.

The result can be interpreted as below:

Fasting Glucose Level Indication
From 70 to 99 mg/dL Normal fasting glucose
From 100 to 125 mg/dL  Prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose)
126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) and above on more than one testing occasion Diabetes

OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test)

This test is used to detect gestational diabetes.

After a fasting glucose level is measured, a woman is given a 75-gram dose of glucose to drink and her glucose levels are measured at 1 hour and 2 hours after the dose. 

Only one of the values needs to be above a cutoff value for diagnosis:

Time of Sample Collection Glucose Result
Fasting Equal to or greater than 92 mg/dL 
1 hour after glucose drink Equal to or greater than 180 mg/dL
2 hours after glucose drink Equal to or greater than 153 mg/dL


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more
Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 Deficiency – Symptoms, Causes, Complications, Diagnosis and Treatment

Vitamin B12

also called cobalamin, is a type of B vitamin. It’s a water-soluble vitamin which means it can dissolve in water and travel through the bloodstream. The human body can store vitamin B-12 for up to four years and any excess vitamin B-12 is excreted in the urine. Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs when there are inadequate levels of vitamin B12 in the body.

Vitamin B12

What are the symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency?

Vitamin B12 performs several important functions in the body, including keeping the nervous system healthy. A deficiency can cause a wide range of problems, including:

  • Tiredness and Weakness, one of the most common symptoms of Vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Numb or tingling feeling in hands and feet
  • Pale yellow skin color, lack of red blood cells makes the skin look colorless. 
  • Loss of balance
  • Nausea
  • Decreased appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Irritability
  • Diarrhea
  • Sore and red tongue
  • Shortness of breath, due to poor formation of red blood cells.
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Disturbed vision, as Vitamin B12 deficiency affects the nervous system it often damages the optic nerve leading to poor vision.
  • Problems with memory, understanding, and judgement. Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to severe mood swings and even depression. Other problems like thinking or reasoning problems and memory loss can also occur.

What causes Vitamin B12 deficiency?

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia may be caused by one of the following:

  • Pernicious Anemia: A protein called intrinsic factor is required for vitamin B12 absorption by the body. This protein is produced by cells in the stomach lining. In people with pernicious anemia, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks these cells, preventing intrinsic factor from combining with vitamin B12 and hampering its absorption. This condition most commonly affects people over 50 years old.
  • Stomach conditions such as Atrophic gastritis, which causes thinning of the stomach lining can cause vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Intestinal conditions such as Crohn’s disease, a condition that causes inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract may lead to vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Surgical procedures that remove part or all of the stomach, or the end of the small intestine, may prevent adequate absorption of vitamin B12.
  • Certain medications can interfere with the absorption of Vitamin B12.
  • Strict vegans and people with a poor diet are at a higher risk of developing Vitamin B12 deficiency.

What are the Risk Factors for Vitamin B12 deficiency?

The risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency anemia include:

  • A family history of the disease
  • Having part or all of the stomach or intestine removed
  • Autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes
  • Crohn’s disease
  • HIV
  • Strict vegetarian diets
  • Being an older adult
  • Poor diet in infants
  • Poor nutrition during pregnancy

How is Vitamin B12 deficiency diagnosed?

The doctor may suspect Vitamin B12 deficiency based on medical history and symptoms. Following laboratory tests may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Standard blood tests to measure the level of red blood cells and their appearance. In Vitamin B12 deficiency, red blood cells are unusually large and appear abnormal.
  • Blood tests to measure levels of iron and folate to check for deficiencies.
  • Blood test to measure methylmalonic acid level. The blood level of methylmalonic acid increases when a person has Vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Blood tests for intrinsic factor antibodies. Most people who lack intrinsic factor in their stomach have these antibodies in their blood.

How is Vitamin B12 deficiency treated?

Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is treated with supplements of vitamin B12 and intake of foods that are rich in vitamin B12 such as

  • Eggs
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Milk
  • Shellfish
  • Fortified cereals

What are the complications of vitamin B12 deficiency?

Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause complications depending on the severity and duration of the deficiency:

  • Megaloblastic anemia: It is characterized by red blood cells that are larger than normal. As the red blood cells are too large, they may not be able to exit the bone marrow to enter the bloodstream and deliver oxygen.
  • Neurological problems: These may include vision disturbances, memory loss, difficulty walking or speaking, and damage to the nerves (peripheral neuropathy), particularly in the legs.
  • Infertility: Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause women to be unable to fall pregnant.
  • Stomach cancer: The risk of developing stomach cancer may be increased in the case of vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Neural tube defects: Pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficiency may be at an increased risk of their baby developing serious birth defects.


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more
Childhood Obesity

Childhood Obesity – Complications, Prevention Tips and Exercise Program

Childhood Obesity

Did you know with around 14.4 million obese children, India has the second-highest number of obese children in the world, next to China.

Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents. Children who are obese are above the normal weight for their age and height and are at higher risk of developing a range of health problems such as heart disease and diabetes. Childhood obesity can also lead to poor self-esteem and depression. 

More importantly, poor health stemming from childhood obesity can continue into adulthood.

Childhood Obesity


What are the causes of Childhood Obesity?

Children become overweight and obese for a variety of reasons. The most common causes are 

  • Lack of physical activity, spending a lot of time in sedentary activities also contributes to the problem.
  • Unhealthy eating habits such as fast foods can cause the child to gain weight.
  • Genetic factors, If the child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on weight. 
  • Medical condition such as a hormonal problem
  • Psychological issues, Children who are stressed or depressed may eat more to cope with negative emotions.
  • Socioeconomic status, Children and adolescents that come from lower-income homes are at greater risk of being affected by obesity.  Educational levels also contribute to the socioeconomic issue associated with obesity. 

What are the complications associated with Childhood Obesity?

Obese children are more likely to develop a range of health problems, including:

Physical Complications:

  • High blood pressure or heart disease: A poor diet can contribute to the buildup of plaques in the arteries causing arteries to narrow and harden leading to a heart attack or stroke later in life.
  • Type-2 diabetes: Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
  • Sleep disorders: Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious disorder in which a child’s breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This condition usually causes no symptoms and causes fatty deposits to build up in the liver. NAFLD can lead to scarring and liver damage.
  • Bone fractures: Obese children are more prone to bone fractures.
  • Asthma: Children who are overweight or obese may be more likely to have asthma.
  • Irregular menstruation: Overweight girls may have irregular menstrual cycles and fertility problems in adulthood.

Social and emotional complications:

  • Low self-esteem: Obese children often are bullied and suffer a loss of self-esteem.
  • Depression: Low self-esteem can create overwhelming feelings of hopelessness, which can lead to depression in some obese children.
  • Behavior and learning problems: Overweight children tend to have more anxiety and poorer social skills than normal-weight children.

What are the symptoms of Childhood Obesity?

Some of the most common symptoms of childhood obesity include:

  • Appearance changes including
    • Stretch marks on the hips and abdomen
    • Dark, velvety skin around the neck and in other areas
    • Fatty tissue deposition in the breast area.
  • Poor self-esteem
  • Eating disorders
  • Shortness of breath when physically active
  • Sleep apnea
  • Constipation
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Early puberty and irregular menstrual cycles in girls
  • Delayed puberty in boys.
  • Flat feet, dislocated hip

How is Childhood Obesity diagnosed?

Measurement of height and weight are the most commonly used tools to quickly evaluate the proportionality of children. These measurements allow calculation of the body mass index (BMI). 

The doctor can use growth charts, BMI and other tests to assess if the child’s weight could pose health problems.

What are the prevention tips for Childhood Obesity?

Following measures can be taken to prevent childhood obesity:

  • Limit consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages
  • Increase intake of 
    • Fresh fruits and vegetables
    • Lean proteins, such as chicken and fish
    • Whole grains such as brown rice, whole-grain bread
    • Low-fat dairy products including skim milk, low-fat yogurt.
  • Limit dining out, especially at fast-food restaurants
  • Adjust portion sizes appropriately for age
  • Limit screen time 
  • Ensure enough sleep for the child

What is the importance of exercise in Childhood Obesity?

Regular physical activity including below is recommended to help prevent childhood obesity.

  • At least 60 minutes of active play
  • A variety of non-competitive activities at varying levels of intensity.
  • At least 10 to 15 minutes of vigorous exercise.

It has various health related benefits such as:

  • Increases muscle strength
  • Improves neuromuscular control
  • Improves blood lipid profile
  • Reduces the risk of sports-related injuries
  • Controls weight
  • Increases bone mass and density
  • Improves self-esteem
  • Reduces the risk of getting diabetes and other cancers at later stages in life.


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more
Complete Blood Count

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Test – What does it measure?

Complete blood count (CBC) is the most commonly ordered blood test and is used to 

  • Evaluate overall health
  • Screen for a variety of disorders e.g. anemia, infection, inflammation, bleeding disorders, blood cancer.
  • Check the bone marrow and spleen functioning
  • Monitor an existing condition e.g. blood disorders.
  • Monitor treatment that is known to affect blood cells, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy

Complete Blood Count

What does it measure?

Complete blood count (CBC) test measures several components of the blood, including:

  • White Blood Cells count: The total number of white blood cells in a sample of blood. 
  • White Blood Cell Differential: There are five different types of white blood cells, also called leukocytes. They are neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. This test measures how many of each type the blood has. The numbers of each type may temporarily shift higher or lower in cases such as
    • An infection can stimulate the body to produce a higher number of neutrophils to fight off bacterial infection. 
    • In the case of allergies, there may be an increased number of eosinophils. 
    • An increased number of lymphocytes may be produced with a viral infection. 
  • Red blood cell (RBC) count: The actual number of red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, in a sample of blood. Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream as they mature. The bone marrow continually produces new RBCs to replace those that age and disintegrate or are lost through bleeding.
  • Hemoglobin: The total amount of the oxygen-carrying protein in the blood.
  • Hematocrit: The percentage of a person’s total blood volume that consists of red blood cells.
  • Red blood cell indices: Calculations that provide information on the physical characteristics of the RBCs:
    • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV): Measurement of the average size of a single red blood cell.
    • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH): A calculation of the average amount of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell.
    • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC): A calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell.
    • Red cell distribution width (RDW): A calculation of the variation in the size of RBCs.
  • Reticulocyte count: A measurement of the absolute count or percentage of young red blood cells in the blood.
  • Platelet count: The number of platelets, also called thrombocytes, in a person’s sample of blood. Platelets are special cell fragments that play an important role in normal blood clotting. 
  • Mean Platelet Volume (MPV): Mean platelet volume measures the average amount (volume) of platelets. If the platelet count is normal, the mean platelet volume can still be too high or too low.

How is it performed?

A healthcare professional will draw a blood sample from a vein in the arm or a finger-prick or heel-prick (newborns). 

Are there any Side effects of CBC?

CBC test does not usually cause any side effects. Side effects that may happen include:

  • Discomfort
  • Bleeding
  • Bruising
  • Swelling
  • Infection

What the results may indicate?

A CBC is not a definitive diagnostic test. Blood cell counts that are too high or too low could signal a wide variety of conditions. Specialized tests are needed to diagnose a specific condition. 

Common terms used to describe CBC results are:

  • Anemia – not having enough healthy Red Blood Cells, Hemoglobin and Hematocrit. Anemia causes fatigue, weakness and  has many causes, including low levels of certain vitamins or iron, blood loss, or an underlying condition.
  • Leukopenia – a low number of White Blood Cells. It is caused by a medical condition, such as an autoimmune disorder that destroys white blood cells, bone marrow problems or cancer. Certain medications also can cause white blood cell counts to drop.
  • Leukocytosis – an increased number of White Blood Cells. It may be due to an infection or inflammation or due to a reaction to medication.
  • Thrombocytopenia – a low number of platelets. Often a sign of an underlying medical condition or a side effect from medication.
  • Thrombocytosis – an increased number of platelets. Often a sign of an underlying medical condition or a side effect from medication.

What does abnormal CBC result indicate?

Abnormal RBC count

A low RBC count may be due to:

  • Anemia due to prolonged bleeding or blood loss (hemorrhage), a diet lacking iron or certain vitamins, certain types of chemotherapy, blood disorders or chronic disease
  • Lymphomas
  • Cancers of the blood
  • Bone marrow disorders
  • Nutritional deficiency
  • Chronic Kidney disease
  • Chronic inflammatory disease

A high RBC count may be due to:

  • Dehydration, such as from severe diarrhea
  • Kidney tumours
  • Lung diseases
  • Smoking
  • Polycythemia vera

Abnormal Hemoglobin and Hematocrit

It usually mirrors RBC results and provides added information

Abnormal MCV 

Low MCV may indicate:

RBCs are smaller than normal. It can be caused by iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias.

High MCV may indicate:

RBCs are larger than normal. It can occur in cases such as anemia caused by vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, liver disease, hypothyroidism.

Abnormal MCH 

It usually mirrors MCV results.

Abnormal MCHC

Low MCHC may indicate:

Conditions such as iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia.

High MCHC may indicate:

Conditions where the hemoglobin is more concentrated inside the red cells, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

Abnormal RDW

Low RDW may indicate:

Uniformity in size of Red blood cells.

High RDW may indicate:

A mixed population of small and large RBCs. In cases such as iron deficiency anemia or pernicious anemia, there is a high variation in RBC size causing an increase in the RDW.

Abnormal Reticulocyte Count

Low Reticulocyte count may indicate:

A condition affecting the production of red blood cells, such as bone marrow disorder or a nutritional deficiency.

High Reticulocyte count may indicate:

Peripheral cause, such as bleeding or hemolysis

Abnormal WBC count

A low WBC count may be due to:

  • Viral infection
  • Severe bacterial infection
  • Bone marrow disorders
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Lymphoma
  • Dietary deficiencies

A high WBC count may be due to:

  • Infection
  • Leukemia
  • Inflammation
  • Stress, allergies, asthma

Abnormal Neutrophil count

A low neutrophil count, known as neutropenia, may be due to:

  • Severe infection
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Dietary deficiencies
  • Reaction to drugs
  • Bone marrow damage

A high neutrophil count, known as neutrophilia, may be due to:

  • Acute bacterial infections
  • Inflammation
  • Stress, Trauma
  • Certain leukemias

Abnormal Lymphocyte count

A low lymphocyte count, known as lymphocytopenia, may be due to:

  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Infections
  • Bone marrow damage 
  • Corticosteroids

A high lymphocyte count, known as lymphocytosis, may be due to:

  • Acute viral infections
  • Certain bacterial infections
  • Chronic inflammatory disorder
  • Lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma
  • Acute stress

Abnormal Monocyte count

Repeated low monocyte counts may be due to:

  • Bone marrow damage or failure
  • Hairy cell leukemia
  • Aplastic anemia

A high monocyte count may be due to:

  • Chronic infections
  • Infection within the heart
  • Collagen vascular diseases 
  • Monocytic or myelomonocytic leukemia 

Abnormal Eosinophil count

Occasional low numbers are usually not medically significant.

A high eosinophil count may be due to:

  • Asthma, allergies such as hay fever
  • Drug reactions
  • Parasitic infections
  • Inflammatory disorders 
  • Some cancers, leukemias or lymphomas

Abnormal Basophil count

Occasional low numbers are usually not medically significant.

A high basophil count may be due to:

  • Rare allergic reactions
  • Inflammation
  • Some leukemias
  • Uremia

Abnormal Platelet count

A low platelet count may be due to:

  • Cancer, such as leukemia or lymphoma
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Bacterial infection
  • Viral infection like dengue
  • Chemotherapy or radiation therapy
  • Certain drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 

A high platelet count may be due to:

  • Bone marrow disorders
  • Essential thrombocythemia
  • Anemia 
  • Infection
  • Surgical removal of the spleen 
  • Polycythemia vera
  • Some types of leukemia

Abnormal MPV

Low MPV may indicate:

A condition affecting the production of platelets by the bone marrow.

High MPV may indicate:

A high number of larger and younger platelets in the blood. It may be due to the bone marrow producing and releasing platelets rapidly and prematurely into circulation.


ERemedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more

2020 Eremedium. All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use