Skip to main content Skip to search

Archives for Health

Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones – Signs and Symptoms in Women, Prevention Tips and Treatment

Kidney Stones

As per recent reports, an estimated 12% of the Indian population suffer from kidney stones and the incidence of kidney stones in women is steadily increasing due to factors such as obesity, recurrent urinary tract infections, high-salt diet, increased sugar in the diet, and diabetes. 

The changes in diet to lose weight such as opting for high protein and low carbohydrates diets also increase the risk of kidney stones. 

A kidney stone is a solid mass made of minerals and salts that forms in the kidney. Kidney stones can grow to the size of a golf ball while maintaining a sharp, crystalline structure. A kidney stone may stay in the kidney or may also travel down the urinary tract including the ureters, bladder, and the urethra.

Let us go over sigs and symptoms of kidney stones in women, risk factors, complications, prevention tips

Kidney Stones

What are the signs and symptoms of Kidney Stones in women?

Signs and symptoms of kidney stones may include:

  • Severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pain while urinating
  • Unable to urinate
  • A constant need to urinate
  • Cloudy or bad-smelling urine
  • Fever and Chills
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Urinating small amounts of urine

Are you at risk for developing kidney stones?

Factors that increase the risk of developing kidney stones include:

  • Not drinking enough liquids.
  • Family or personal history of kidney stones.
  • Repeat urinary tract infections.
  • Blockage in the urinary tract.
  • Health conditions such as:
    • Hypercalciuria, high calcium levels in the urine
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Obesity
    • Osteoporosis
    • Gout
    • Kidney cysts
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Hyperparathyroid disease
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Chronic diarrhea
    • Gastric bypass surgery
  • Medications
  • Certain diets such as diets high in:
    • Animal protein
    • Salt
    • Sugar

How can kidney stones be prevented?

Kidney stones can be prevented by the following ways:

    • Drink liquids. In most cases, drinking enough liquids each day is the best way to help prevent most types of kidney stones. Drinking enough liquids keeps the urine diluted and helps flush away minerals that might form stones.
    • Avoid high salt intake. High sodium intake increases calcium in the urine which increases the chances of developing stones. Low salt diet is also important to control blood pressure.
  • Avoid high intake of animal protein. High protein intake will cause the kidneys to excrete more calcium therefore this may cause more stones to form in the kidney.
  • Limit foods with high oxalate content such as spinach, berries, chocolate, nuts, beets.
  • Lose weight in case a person is overweight or obese.
  • Take Medications prescribed by the doctor

What are the treatment options for Kidney Stones?

Treatment options include:

  • Drinking enough fluid.
  • Medications to relax the ureter to allow stones to pass.
  • Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), shock waves are used to break the stones into very small particles that can be passed through the urine.
  • Ureteroscopy, an endoscope is inserted through the ureter to retrieve or obliterate the stone. 
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy involves surgically removing a kidney stone using small telescopes and instruments inserted through a small incision in the back.

What are the complications of Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones can be extremely painful, and if left untreated can lead to 

  • Hematuria, or blood in the urine
  • Severe pain
  • UTIs, including kidney infections
  • Loss of kidney function
  • Chronic kidney disease


Eremedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.

Read more

Thyroiditis – Causes, Types, Symptoms and Diagnosis


Thyroiditis is the swelling or inflammation of the thyroid gland and can lead to abnormal thyroid hormone production. 

The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the front of the neck and produces triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormones. These hormones affect all aspects of metabolism and also influence the control of vital functions, such as body temperature and heart rate. The thyroid gland also needs adequate amounts of dietary iodine to be able to produce T4 and T3.

There are different phases in Thyroiditis as:

  • Thyrotoxic phase: During this phase, the thyroid is inflamed and releases too many hormones.
  • Hypothyroid phase: Following the thyrotoxic phase, the thyroid will not have enough thyroid hormones to release. This leads to a lack of thyroid hormones or hypothyroidism.
  • Euthyroid phase: This phase may occur temporarily after the thyrotoxic phase before going to the hypothyroid phase, or it may occur once the thyroid gland has recovered from the inflammation.

What are the causes of Thyroiditis?

Thyroiditis is caused by an attack on the thyroid, causing inflammation and damage to the thyroid cells. Antibodies that attack the thyroid cause most types of thyroiditis. 

Thyroiditis can also be caused by an infection such as a virus or bacteria, drugs such as interferon and amiodarone, radiation.

Let us go over types of Thyroiditis and its symptoms in an easy to understand format


What are the types of Thyroiditis?

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis): The most common cause of hypothyroidism. The disease occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and slowly destroys the thyroid gland and its ability to produce hormones. The symptoms of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are similar to hypothyroidism such as fatigue, weight gain, constipation, and dry skin.

Silent (Painless) thyroiditis: An autoimmune condition caused by anti-thyroid antibodies. It is also common in women and the next common cause after Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

De Quervain’s (Subacute) Thyroiditis: A temporary inflammatory disorder of the thyroid gland resulting in periods of increased thyroid hormone release due to the inflammation. It usually starts out as a harmless viral illness such as the flu which invades the thyroid gland causing thyroiditis. The inflammation may be quite severe and painful, producing local neck discomfort, neck tenderness, difficulty with swallowing, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, and weight loss.

Postpartum thyroiditis: An inflammation of the thyroid after giving birth, affecting around 4-10% of women.  It can lead to symptoms of hyperthyroidism after 1 to 3 months of delivery and symptoms of hypothyroidism begin about 4 to 8 months after delivery. 

Acute thyroiditis: A relatively rare condition caused by an infectious organism or bacterium. It can lead to symptoms such as pain in the throat, mild illness, swelling of the thyroid gland, and in some cases, symptoms of Hypothyroid or Hyperthyroid.

Drug-induced thyroiditis: A condition caused by the use of drugs such as amiodarone, interferons, lithium, and cytokines. The drugs can damage the thyroid and cause symptoms of Hypothyroid or Hyperthyroid.

Radiation-induced thyroiditis: A condition caused by external radiation used as a medical treatment for certain cancers or radioactive iodine treatment given for an overactive thyroid gland. It can lead to symptoms of Hypothyroid or Hyperthyroid.

What are the symptoms of Thyroiditis?

The symptoms of Thyroiditis depends on the type and phase of Thyroiditis.

During the Hyperthyroid phase, common symptoms are:

  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Heat intolerance
  • Tremors
  • Irritability

During the Hypothyroid phase, common symptoms are:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Dry skin
  • Lack of focus
  • Poor exercise tolerance

How is Thyroiditis diagnosed?

Early diagnosis and treatment of thyroiditis is crucial. Doctors may order one or more blood tests to check thyroid function. 

  • TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)

This test measures the amount of TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) in the blood. TSH stimulates the thyroid and is produced by the anterior pituitary gland. This test is used to diagnose hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, screen newborns for hypothyroidism, and monitor treatment for thyroid disorders.

  • T4, Free

This test helps to evaluate thyroid gland function and diagnose thyroid disease including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Free T4 is also used to help diagnose congenital hypothyroidism in newborns. 

Almost all of the T4 found in the blood is bound to protein. The rest is free (unbound) and is the biologically active form of the hormone. This test measures the amount of free T4 in the blood.

  • T3 Free and Total

It Helps to evaluate thyroid gland function and diagnose thyroid diseases including hyperthyroidism. It also helps to monitor the effectiveness of treatment of a thyroid disorder. 

Almost all of the T3 found in the blood is bound to protein. The rest is free (unbound) and is the biologically active form of the hormone. This test measures the amount of free T3 and total T3 (bound plus unbound) in the blood.

  • Thyroid Antibodies

This test measures the level of thyroid antibodies in the blood and helps to diagnose and monitor autoimmune thyroid diseases and to distinguish these from other forms of thyroid disease.

Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. 

Non-Laboratory Tests

  • Thyroid scans

A specialised imaging procedure to diagnose thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function in different areas of the thyroid.

  • Ultrasound 

An imaging scan that is used to examine the thyroid for abnormalities, including cysts, nodules, or tumors.


Eremedium blogs are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as advice or as a substitute for consulting a physician. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment from a healthcare professional.


Read more

How to Increase Immunity?

As the world is battling Covid-19 pandemic, it is really necessary to attain and maintain a good immune system to fight against the virus. Strengthening immune health can also help fight against other common illnesses such as cold or flu viruses.

The immune system defends the body against harmful or foreign substances, also called antigens. Antigens maybe

  • Germs such as bacteria and viruses
  • Chemicals or toxins
  • Cells that are damaged from cancer or sunburn.

Let us understand about ways to increase immunity

Read more

2020 Eremedium. All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use